Galena stone eis exploited in several localities of La Calestienne, which have become very famous over the years. This is the case of Matagne-La-Grande, Matagne-La-Petite, Treignes, Villers-en-Fagne. Some early miners spent a lifetime of hard work in shafts to extract them. At Tellin, a total of 11 mine shafts were located by radio. One of them is still visible. In the collective memory, some places have names that speak volumes about them. One name in popular memory is the Lead Hole or Lead Pit, which designates quarries found in different places in Calestienne. These are entrances to galleries or trenches that are more or less open to the public. They are dug via a block to cross one or other of the veins. Galena stone was called Saumont or Bois de Saumont. This first name of wood is given to an aggregate of buckshot purified and cooled after the melting of the ore. Ancient people use the names such as pits, mines, lead mines and others.
The term comes from the Greek “galena” and the Latin “galena” for buckshot ore. It had been cited as early as 77 by Pliny the Elder. Originally, the term referred to most buckshot minerals as well as smelting slag. Pliny essentially uses the term to refer to molten buckshot slag. Today, it is only the natural formula for buckshot sulphide.
Photos of extraction in the gallery entrances are quite old. It has been found in very ancient writings and on photos the mention of ancient scientists. The stone has been recognized for some millennia as the main buckshot mine. During Antiquity, the heavy public exploitation of Laurium’s silver buckshot mines is one of the factors that ensured the hegemony of Athens in the Mediterranean. This exploitation contains large quantities of silver.
In olden times, buckshot was used in galena to make it easier to extract. The Babylonians used it to make vases found metres away in the ruins of several gardens. The Romans generally used it in water pipes. It wasn’t until the invention of printing that the need for alloy for use in type was greatly increased.
Galena refers to a mineral species. It is composed not only of buckshot sulphide, but also of traces of Bi, Ag, Cu, Se, Cd, Te, Zn, Sb, Fe, As, Au and Mo. This is what gives it a whole cohort of varieties. It creates a series with clausthalite. Galena stone is quite common in hydrothermal deposits. It is associated in hypothermal deposits with high temperature silicates, in mesothermal paragenesis with fluorite and baryte or even with grey copper and silver salts. Several copper minerals have been discovered at Tsumeb. They are also found in sedimentary, epithermal and volcano-sedimentary, pneumatolytic and pegmatitic deposits. This sulphide crystallizes in the cubic system. Not very large, it occurs in cubes, octahedrons with 10 mm sides, or very rare dodecahedrons. It also exists in the form of tabular crystals. The rock is either massive or finely crystallized and even fibrous in rare cases. It is found in conglomerate or even within pebbles. It is not uncommon to find them in deposits in the form of balls or fist-sized blocs. Fill veins in cracks range from millimetres to metres. Galena stone is often tarnished and has a bright metallic lustre in the form of fresh breaks. It is easily changed by oxidation and quickly transforms into buckshot sulphate. The latter has a very protective layer on the surface to prevent any significant alteration. It is unstable in contact with carbon dioxide and is transformed into cerusite with a creamy colour. These minerals are considerable surface guides for the prospector. They are decisive clues as to the presence of the quarry.
The buckshot deposits are quite varied. They are sedimentary deposits located within the tuffs that dominate the volcanic flows. They conform to stratification or even a continuous layered structure in stratiform deposits. Deposits of copper, calcite, pyrite, zinc, limestone and buckshot, as well as very complex deposits such as buckshot, copper, tin, antimony, mercury, silver, gold, bismuth, molybdenum or tungsten, can be related to the non-volcanic bodies. Some deposits are associated with plutonic bodies including intrusive granites. Granite sometimes emits hydrothermal veins within the interior of sedimentary rocks. At the veins, some segregation is created depending on the proximity of the granite and temperature conditions. Mineralization is accompanied by hydrothermal alterations in the surrounding rocks. It should be noted that greisens are created all around the formations. The deeper one goes, the more the metallic mineral deposits modify their composition. According to X-rays, this variation can be explained by segregation due to pressure and temperature conditions. In Great Britain, in Cornwall, a clear distribution of the block can be observed on the radio as you leave the centre of the deposit. The tin veins are converted into copper, silver buckshot, antimony and manganese and iron carbonates. Association with other cavities causes a strong fluctuation in the production of metals such as buckshot, zinc, calcite, copper, limestone or silver. World production is estimated at around 3.5 million tonnes per year in states such as the United States, Australia, Canada and the USSR. It is called ubiquitous ore because it conforms to the various environments observed on radios.
SEmotionally, it is a pebble of moderation. Galena stone helps to calm violent emotions, tantrums, and the need for revenge and resentment. Intellectually, it encourages a given course of action by removing the user from all parasitic thoughts, useless or sources of suffering over time. It provides stability as well as the necessary structure to achieve the goals set. Spiritually, it is an excellent guide when one wants to move forward in the dark. However, it creates a rather rigid corridor, freezing opinions and knowledge when used over long periods of time during a spiritual quest. It is recommended to be quite attentive and especially to listen to oneself.
Physically, crystals are used for detoxification. They are used to dissolve deposits in the joints. A sample, large or small, is able to treat immobility and dizziness. A small sample ensures hair regrowth. It is not necessary to have a whole collection at home. People who often lack balance can use it and put it around the ears and at the level of the base chakra. Galena stone helps to reduce rashes and treats scalp problems. It is a very beautiful anchor stone that allows you to be more conscious and stay awake in the present moment. Simply place it on the base chakra. It is the 3rd eye to ensure intellectual and musical balance. When a collection is mixed with dolomite, it provides soothing and stabilizing energies. It should be used with labradorite to experience extraordinary inner peace and musical inspiration. It can also be used with black tourmaline for greater protection and productivity at work.
The same applies to the following elements: Herkimer diamond, azurite malachite, green calcite, sphalerite, iolite, dumortierite, phenacite, dendritic agate or moss agate sample. It is sometimes combined with other stones (stichtite, milky crystal, andalusite, lepidolite, shattuckite, blue chalcedony, sodalite, hiddenite, white fairy quartz, pietersite, larimar, etc.) to have soothing effects. It has a toxic side and it is better not to use it as an elixir. It contains traces of very toxic products when consumed. It is necessary to take care to wash your hands with soap and water after each use, especially when it is sphalerite. In principle, it should not be left within the reach of a small child without supervision, as the child could put it in his mouth.