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The word sapphire comes from the Greek “sappheiros” meaning “blue.” Greeks and Romans used sapphires from Sri Lanka in fifth century B.C. Egyptians worshipped and regarded sapphire stone as sacred and as a bearer of justice and truth whilst Persians believed that the blue of the sky was the result of its reflections. For the Catholic Church, sapphire stone is a symbol of purity, and cardinals wore it as a ring on their right hand.
Sapphire stone is described in the Old Testament. The Tables of the Law were considered to have been made of sapphire representing Moses’s vision of God. Its blue has always been associated with heavenly and divine power among the Greeks and Romans. The sapphire stone of antiquity does not always correspond to the one we know of today as the Greek’s descriptions referred to blue stones with golden dots, better describing lapis lazuli. Different peoples associated its colour intensity with the supposed sex of the stone: a dark blue sapphire would be male and lighter varieties, female.
In the fourth century, Franks and Visigoths brought a complex technique called “Cloisonné” which consists of decorating metalwork with inlays of cut gemstones. The Catholic Church associates the stone with divine purity and the Virgin Mary. According to legend, King of England Edward the Confessor offered his ring to a beggar, who became Saint John the Evangelist. Stories depict that a great sapphire of incredible beauty was found in the old house of Mary, now converted into a rich basilica over the centuries. A religious effigy of Joan I of Navarre adorned with sapphires and dating from the 15th century is displayed in the Louvre. At that time, sapphire gem-adorned jewellery (pendants, bracelets, necklaces, etc.) and objects such as goblets and large glasses in the shape of vases.
Louis XIV’s Grand Sapphire is a 135-carat deep blue piece from Ceylon that was most likely a gift. Because of its shape it was believed to be a raw stone. However, it was likely recut. Legend has it that it was discovered by a wooden spoons seller in Bangladesh, and later it belonged to an Italian prince named Ruspoli. In truth, there were two separate stones. The Black Star of Queensland or black star sapphire was found by a young boy in Australia. The stone was ignored until it was sold to a jeweller who uncovered its beauty by cutting it. At 733 carats, it is now estimated at $100 million.
Sapphire stone is one of the four gemstones along with diamond, ruby and emerald, and it is a variety of corundum (aluminium oxide) that comes in various colours. It consists of aluminium oxide crystals that contain impurities (oxides) giving it colour variations. It can be heat-treated to change its colour. Deposits are found in the United States, Sri Lanka, China and India. The Ceylon region is famous for its brilliant blue sapphire stones.
Psychologically and psychologically, sapphire stone works by: